Electronic Repairing

BIOS (Fundamental Enter Output System) is a set of directions or a small program saved in a chip within the motherboard of the pc, used to carry out {hardware} initialization in the course of the booting course of (power-on startup), and to supply runtime companies for working programs and packages. 
As the principle laptop reminiscence would not maintain knowledge when the pc is turned off, and then again the pc wants a program to be helpful which is the working system that’s saved within the exhausting disk, so one of many guidelines of the BIOS is to load the working system and to initialize the {hardware}. 

  • An influence-on self-test (POST) : a check of all of the parts to ensure all the things is alright.
  • Activating different BIOS chips on completely different playing cards put in within the laptop – For instance, SCSI and graphics playing cards usually have their very own BIOS chips.
  • Offering a set of low-level routines that the working system makes use of to interface to completely different {hardware} gadgets – It’s these routines that give the BIOS its identify. They handle issues just like the keyboard, the display screen, and the serial and parallel ports, particularly when the pc is booting.
  • configure the {hardware} akin to processor, RAM frequency…and so forth
  • discover a bootable gadget that the pc will use as well, normally it incorporates an working system and is the principle exhausting disk of the pc or an working system installer contained both in a DVD or a USB drive. 


Electronic Repairing

once we outline the BIOS we mentioned that it configures {hardware} and appears for a bootable gadget, however the place does it discover the {hardware} parameters that can use to configure the {hardware} with, and what’s the sequence of bootable gadgets it’ll observe? these informations and extra are saved in a particular chip reminiscence referred to as CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) it isn’t a unstable reminiscence because it retains knowledge even when the pc is turned off it makes use of a battery for that, however what occurs when the battery simply died ? are its info misplaced? the reply is sure and no on the identical time (this isn’t a puzzle to resolve), it holds the default info saved there and it loses the change that had been made to them, for instance: if somebody modified the boot order of the pc to DVD first and the default setting was Onerous disk so the setting might be exhausting drive since it is the default one, or if somebody modified some RAM parameters they are going to be misplaced and the BIOS will use the default RAM settings in the course of the boot.
Word that the settings you are allowed to alter are outlined by the setup program which can see later on this course.
when the battery of the CMOS died, you will see a message at any time when the pc is turned on informing you that the default settings might be restored.
The CMOS battery is used to maintain the system time, that is why the time and date of your laptop is appropriate (supposing after all it was appropriate the final time the pc was on and nobody messed with the battery) whenever you flip in your laptop, and when the battery is useless you need to set the time each time you flip the pc on.

The Setup program: 

now suppose you wish to change some {hardware} parameters or the boot order of your laptop, how will you entry the informations saved within the CMOS to ensure that the BIOS to make use of the modified parameters?
the reply is thru the SETUP program of the motherboard. 
so the setup program is a built-in program used to configure the CMOS knowledge and set the pc time.

Electronic Repairing

The right way to entry the Setup program?

normally when the pc is activate you see one thing written on the backside of the display screen telling you the keyboard key it is best to hit to enter the setup, generally you do not see something.
  • For the desktop computer systems most of them use the delete key or F2 key.
  • For laptops F2, generally F5, F6, F10, F12, and generally you need to use each Fn and one of many above keys.

If not one of the above keys work simply preserve making an attempt each perform key or do a google search.

what are you able to do within the setup program?

Often one entry the setup program largely to alter the boot order to put in an working system, nevertheless there are lots of issues you may change there and lots of details about the system might be discovered there:
  • Learn the way a lot RAM the system has.
  • Discover out the capability and variety of the exhausting drives put in.
  • Discover out the system temperature together with the CPU temperature which is a racial info in case of a heating drawback.
  • Activate or disactivate some motherboard options akin to USB.  
  • Set the system time.
  • Change the boot order.
  • Change the voltages and frequencies of the CPU, although you need to be an knowledgeable to take action.
  • Overclocking your CPU ,which is a function to make it quicker, however you need to take into account the heating and energy elements whereas doing that.
  • Change the exhausting disk parameters
  • …and so forth

Discover that the belongings you’re allowed to do is decided by the motherboard producer so  you would possibly discover lots of variations between the computer systems and the extra setup packages you observe with the higher for you.

Laptop POST and beep codes:

The POST (Energy-On Self Check) is the BIOS checks that performs on the {hardware} laptop to ensure  all the things is alright, nevertheless if finds one thing flawed it sends an error message by way of beeps, every BIOS producer has its personal beep code, the beep or beeps inform you what is going on flawed together with your laptop, so you need to get an inventory of the beep codes of your laptop to know the error and repair it. 
click on here to get an inventory of the most typical BIOS. 

The right way to test what BIOS you may have and the model: 

– You’ll find out what BIOS you may have by utilizing this command within the command immediate : wmic bios get smbiosbiosversion (you may open the command immediate by clicking begin after which run then kind cmd).

– You too can discover out the BIOS you may have and the model by studying on the highest of the primary display screen you need to learn quick as a result of it would not keep displayed lengthy.

Electronic Repairing
– And eventually you will discover out your BIOS model within the setup program, depending on the setup you may have you would possibly click on assist or about or no matter. 

BIOS replace: 

The BIOS could be up to date to get the enhancements launched by the producer, BIOS updates usually have very brief change logs – they might repair a bug with an obscure piece of {hardware} or add help for a brand new mannequin of CPU. generally individuals do a DOWNGRADE to their BIOSes to make them appropriate with home windows XP for instance (some individuals just like the previous greater than the long run) as a result of they’ve softwares that work solely below home windows XP   .
here’s a video on easy methods to replace the BIOS:


The BIOS has been used for thus lengthy and has some limitations akin to its vulnerability, some malicious packages use the BIOS to do their hurt, and so the motherboard producers repair them with the UEFI.
the UEFI is the trendy BIOS if you wish to, it fastened the problems of the BIOS akin to:
  • UEFI fastened the vulnerability of the BIOS by introducing the boot safe notion, which prevents something from executing besides the working system put in.
  • Onerous disk with greater than 2.2 Terabyte should not recognizable with BIOS and the UEFI fastened this situation too.
  • The utmost variety of main partitions is four within the BIOS and is 128 within the UEFI.       
all the trendy computer systems include the UEFI, normally the UEFI has an attracting setup program that makes use of the mouse to navigate though it isn’t a rule.

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it’s possible you’ll wish to learn 

The motherboard

Central processing unit and cooling

RAM Random Access Memory 

Types of computer memories 

The hard drive and the optical drive


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