Laptop Charger Circuit

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Laptop computer Charger Circuit:

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Charger circuit is a set of electronic components that carry out the duty of feeding the laptop computer with energy and charging the battery, charger circuit is likely one of the most essential circuits within the laptop computer motherboard, and plenty of laptop computer energy issues are associated to it.
Understanding this circuit is essential to troubleshoot and repair energy associated issues, we are going to clarify on this article this circuit and provides the frequent issues encountered with it.

Charger Circuit easy Schematic diagram:

Under is straightforward schematic diagram of the charger circuit:
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It begins with the AC adapter jack the place the AC adapter is plagued in, then there’s the protection components that are the coil L and the diode D and the fuse F, then we’ve the built-in circuit that controls the operations, then relying on the laptop computer there are 5 and typically solely 3 MOSFETs that act like switches their gates are at all times linked to the IC. we’ll clarify how the circuit works within the subsequent paragraph.  

Charger Circuit Features:

The charger circuit has two capabilities:
  1. Decide the facility supply to make use of: both AC adapter or the battery.
  2. Charging the battery. 
Let’s begin by explaining how the primary operate is carried out :
– In case the AC adapter is plugged in with the battery the laptop computer will operate with the AC adapter.
– When the AC adapter is plugged in there’s a detector circuit that tells the I/O controller through a sign that the AC adapter is plugged in.
– The IO controller will inform the IC within the charger circuit which in flip applies a voltage to the MOSFETs Q1 and Q2 and switch them on permitting the present to stream from the AC adapter.
– On the similar time it blocks the MOSFETs Q3 and This autumn which prevents the present from flowing from the battery.
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– If the AC adapter is plugged out, the detector circuit will inform the IO controller which in flip tells the IC of the charger circuit.
– The IC will activate Q3 and This autumn in order that the battery present will feed the motherboard and switch off Q1 and Q2 in order that the present will not go to the AC jack.

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Now let’s speak in regards to the charging operate:
– The battery is linked with the I/O controller telling it how a lot cost it has, if the battery cost is totally different from 100% the I/O controller sends this data to the charger IC.
– If the AC adapter is plugged within the IC activate Q5 in order that present can stream to the battery and charging it.
– If the battery cost reaches 100% the I/O controller sends a sign to the IC and the latter will flip Q5 off.
– The charger IC will flip Q5 off if the AC adapter is plugged out even when the battery is not absolutely charged in order that the battery present will not stream again to it, as a result of as we mentioned earlier when the AC adapter is plugged out the motherboard will probably be fed from the battery present, and if Q5 will not flip off, the battery present will stream again to it.

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Charger circuit issues:

Now let’s have a look at the frequent issues that you just encounter with the charger circuit we are going to use the circuit beneath:
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downside 01: 
The most typical downside with the so many laptops is that it really works solely with the AC adapter and never with the battery.
Potential causes: 
– The battery is damaged: very first thing to test is the battery, attempt one other working battery to verify it is not the rationale, in case your laptop computer can run with one other battery which means it’s important to change the battery.
– The opposite attainable motive is that Q3 is open circuited (it acts like an open circuit), take away it then check it.
– The final motive is the IC is damaged, change it!

Drawback 02:
The laptop computer works with the battery solely.

Potential causes: 
– One of many safety elements is brief circuited both the coil L or the diode D or the fuse F, however essentially the most possible is the Fuse, check them to verify.

– Both Q1 or Q2 is brief circuited, check them to verify.
– The IC is damaged, change it!

Drawback 03:
The battery would not cost.

Potential causes: 
– The fuse close to the battery is brief, check it very first thing.
– The battery is damaged: test the battery, attempt one other working battery to verify it is not the rationale, if the brand new battery can cost which means your battery is damaged, change it!
– The Q5 MOSFET is open circuited not permitting any present to stream to the battery, check it.
– The battery connector is damaged, the cost stage sign would not get to the I/O controller, go to the battery connector and seek the advice of the schematic diagram to see the place to check the charging sign, when you do not discover it change the battery connector.
– The IC is damaged, change it!
– The I/O controller would not ship the sign to the IC, test that sign from the schematic diagram.

Drawback 04:
The battery is charging however would not maintain cost even when the laptop computer is turned off, when you flip it on after some hours you discover the battery useless.

Potential causes: 
– The battery is damaged: test the battery, attempt one other working battery to verify it is not the rationale, if the brand new battery can maintain cost which means your battery is damaged, change it!
– The Q3 MOSFET is brief circuited (appearing like a wire) permitting present to stream from the battery even when the AC adapter is plugged in or the laptop computer is turned off, check it.
– The IC is damaged, change it!

Drawback 05:
The battery will get broken from no specific motive after a comparatively brief utilization time, you alter one other battery then the identical factor occurs.

Potential causes: 
– The Q5 MOSFET is brief circuited (appearing like a wire) permitting present to stream to the battery even when it’s absolutely charged which leads to damaging the battery, check that MOSFET.
– The IC is damaged, change it!

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